Monday, May 25, 2020
The phenomena of perception refer to the sensory processes that enables human beings to recognize and organized the information that is received from the environment. Such process allows individuals to perceive the world and objects. For such process to occur, theorists research visual perceptual patterns during the period of infancy. Research has found that there are differences between the way a newborn infant perceives the world in comparison to adults, as their visual system is not fully developed at such an early age. An infantÃ¢â¬â¢s visual system is heterochronus which disables them from seeing a complete view of the world, compared to adults. An individualÃ¢â¬â¢s visual system is constructed by different components. The eye and the brain perform different functions and go through different processes from the moment light is reflected from an object to actually obtaining visual recognition. Vision relies on the response of the nervous system to the light that has been reflected from an object, during this process many parts of the human eye are active. When a ray of light enters the pupil of the eye, the cornea refracts the lights and focuses the lights on the lens which focuses the light at the back of the eye in the retina. The retina then converts the light via optic nerves which enables the information to be processed in the brain, enabling visual recognition of the image which we see (Wade, 2001). This process is necessary, so individuals are able to comprehend what isShow MoreRelatedEssay on Infant Sensory Development1474 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHave you ever wondered exactly how infants perceive the world around the m? If infants are exposed to certain foods in their prenatal development and are exposed to the food through their mother during breastfeeding after birth, will they remember that particular food later on in their life and prefer its taste to other foods? Is their sense of smell acute after birth or is it acquired over time? How do infants use the sense of touch to form relationships and learn about the fascinating world aroundRead MoreThe Development Of Facial Perception2429 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesexamine three studies on the development of facial perception in infants. There is a large body of research already dedicated to this topic, maintaining this first year of life as an integral stage in perceptual development (Oakes Ellis, 2013). Facial perception is of particular is important because of its pervasive social implications (Bahrick, Lickliter, Castellanos, 2013). Greater understanding of perceptual ability may offer insights in to how infants interact with and learn abou t the social worldRead MoreThe Impact Of Technology On Our Understanding Of The Developing Brain1706 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesembryonic progression show how the human brain and nervous system start to occur at three weeks from contraception, with the closing of the neural tube and By four weeks, major sections of the brain can be distinguished in a simple form, including the forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain divisions and optic vesicle, where the eye matures from. (Brainfacts.org, 2012) From the premature stages advances the essential processes such as the sensory systems after birth. This essay will address how studies withinRead MoreTo what extent can developmental dyslexia be explained by a phonological deficit?1387 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessuffering from Ã¢â¬â as Pringle-Morgan believed Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"word blindnessÃ¢â¬ resulting from deficiencies in visual processing. Since Pringle-MorganÃ¢â¬â¢s initial report, there have been many other explanations of dyslexia. This essay wil l attempt to evaluate phonological deficit hypothesis Ã¢â¬â which suggests that dyslexia is caused by a deficit in phonological processing Ã¢â¬â, with regard to competing theories such as the visual magnocellular deficit hypothesis, and the cerebellar deficit hypothesis. The phonological deficitRead MoreEarly Childhood Development Essay1836 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesyoung, old, and infants look at things has been the subject of a number of studies for many years. These tendencies are referred to as visual preferences and in infants this study can be referred to as early visual perception. Though interest in the study of visual preferences has declined, significant progress has been made in this field. This study however has been very instrumental in helping scholars understand early childhood development issues. Among these issues is how visual preferences canRead MoreTheories And Evidence On Face Recognition2129 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesconstruct their own perceptual worlds. Given that perception is always accurate, GregoryÃ¢â¬â¢s theory contradicts the unlikeliness that retinal images are unclear and incomplete. It also, explains, in a more efficient way, illusions than perception itself (Eysenck and Keane, 1995), a topic unfortunately not discussed in this essay. Constructivists theories disregarded the abundance of sensory data in the real world, in contrary to GibsonÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of direct perception (Empirical point of view), who was concernedRead MorePower And Pleasure Of The Media1488 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesunderstand, we interpret these messages and conventions instinctively. These in tern quite literally shape the way we think, view or perceive stereotypesÃ¢â¬â or in other words Ã¢â¬Å"contextualizeÃ¢â¬ us. An example of this is evident in Figure 1, which depicts two infant males, one Caucasian and one with an assumed African heritage. There are a number obvious differences, the Caucasian child has red cheeks and golden locks whilst itÃ¢â¬â¢s clear that the African childÃ¢â¬â¢s skin tone has been darkened whilst his hair is shapedRead MoreEssay on To what extent is experience necessary for face processing?1888 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagescategory and then incite a preference for own-race faces. The purpose of Kelly, et al.Ã¢â¬â ¢s (2007) study was to look at the developmental origins of the ORE during the first months of life. Each infant was randomly assigned to one of four ethnic groups Ã¢â¬â African, Asian, Middle Eastern or Caucasian. The infants were then exposed to faces from these ethnicities and their novelty preference was measured. Three month olds infants showed a novelty preference for all ethnicities, while six month olds showed a noveltyRead MoreAttachments and Children with disabilities2166 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesattachment also serves to keep the infant close to the mother, thus improving the child s chances of survival. We can learn that Attachment theory is focused on the relationships and bonds between people, particularly long-term relationships including those between a parent and child. The central theme of attachment theory is that primary caregivers who are available and responsive to an infant s needs allow the child to develop a sense of security. The infant knows that the care giver is dependableRead MoreSpiritual Formation1595 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s work on this stage, an infant orients himself or herself to objects in the world; by moving and reacting the infant learns what he is capable of as well as what the surrounding world is capable of. This sequence of actions, are learned responses and reflexes that will be repeated. The infant will first direct actions toward him self and eventually direct the actions toward something other than himself. In the infancy stage of spirituality, the new Ã¢â¬Å"infantÃ¢â¬ or seeker, is at the beginning
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Please review the following scenario and respond to the questions that follow using a minimum of 300 words. Robert was interested in learning about the workings of professional burglars. Several years ago, he made contact with someone who could put him in touch with a professional burglar, although the burglar had retired several years ago. He contacted this person, who forwarded his interest on to the retired professional burglar. The burglar agreed to participate in a series of interviews. The first two interviews went fine, but on the third occasion, his subject indicated that he was planning a burglary in a new development. This was to be a one-time event (rather than a return from retirement) involving burglarizing the home of aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦However, regardless of the code of ethics and standards of conduct, as a human being, RobertÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility at this point would be to alert the authorities of the crime that is about to take place. Although alerting the authorities goes against the American Sociological Association Code of Ethics, what this burglar is ab out to do goes against the current law (ASA Membership, 2005). Thus, not only does the sociologist have to comply with the American Sociological Association Code of Ethics, it is his Ã¢â¬Å"civic dutyÃ¢â¬ to uphold the current law. When this research began, Robert should have discussed the code of ethics with the burglar. Robert should have shared with the burglar the Ã¢â¬Å"Confidentiality and Its Limits,Ã¢â¬ which is the code of ethics that sociologists follow. If this information was shared with the burglar in the beginning, the bugler would have then been properly informed that any information revealed regarding the crime would be in volition of the law, and therefore, could potentially be turned over to the police. Moreover, with Robert informing the burglar about the limits of confidentiality, Robert than has the right to alter the agreement that was initially made to keep all the information confidential (ASA Membership, 2005). ReferenceShow MoreRelatedEthical Dilemma at Workplace Essay1192 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Introduction Ã¢â¬â What is an ethical dilemma? Ethics is the term we give to our concern for good behavior. Ã It is human nature to not only be concerned with our own personal well being, but also that of others and of human society as a whole. Ã The difference between moral dilemmas and ethical ones, philosophers say, is that in moral issues the choice is between right and wrong. Ã In ethical ones, the choice is between two rights. Everyday Im faced with decisions of right and wrong, most of whichRead Moret Types of ethical dilemmas Mastery67Questions123Materials Essay2477 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesTypes of ethical dilemmas Mastery 67% Questions 1 2 3 Materials on the concept: Typical Moral Dilemmas Confronting Business Communicators Ethics and Law for Management Communication Top of Form 1. As part of an effort to hire younger workers, a multinational organization assures applicants that they will get to visit its offices in other countries and work with the employees there. However, only two out of every nine workers actually get selected for such projects. What moral dilemma best fitsRead MoreThe Ethical Principles Of Respect For Autonomy984 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagespresents an ethical dilemma to the health professionals involved in MarkÃ¢â¬â¢s care. The ethical dilemma is whether to uphold his decision not to receive the blood and therefore risk his life or give him the blood to save his life despite knowing his religious status and beliefs. There are several ethical principles involved in this scenario. The ethical principles of respect for Autonomy, Beneficence, Non-maleficence, Veracity and Fidelity will be discussed in the latter part of this essay. There areRead MoreRecidivism, And Its Potential Indicators Essay1320 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesinto recidivism, as well as its nexus with mental health. However, as it currently stands, this proposal is riddled with ethical dilemmas. Israel and Hay (2005) identified non-maleficence, confidentiality and informed consent as the primary ethical conundrums researchers face and this is reflected in DoeÃ¢â¬â¢s proposal. Notwithstanding the presence of these ethical concerns, this essay will argue that they can be mitigated by altering research procedures. Enacting the alterations would assist the proposalRead MoreEthical Dilemma Essay1362 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAn ethical dilemma is an incident that causes us to question how we should react based on our beliefs. A decision needs to be made between right and wrong. I have experienced many ethical dilemmas in my lifetime, so I know that there is no such thing as an ethical dilemma that only affects one person. I also know that some ethical dilemmas are easier to resolve than others are. The easy ones are the ones in which we can make decisions on the spot. For example, if a cashier giv es me too muchRead More An Ethical Dilemma Essay1660 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesReplacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animal Research, makes a very good point when he says that: Many people, including from within the scientific community, consider that the use of NHPs [nonhuman primates] in research is a matter of particular ethical concern because certain features NHPs share with humans, such as their highly developed nervous systems, cognitive complexity and intense sociality, have implications for the level or nature of suffering they might experience during experiments andRead MoreEssay on Ethical Dilemma928 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEthical Dilemma If the accusations against Noca-Cola (N-C) were true and founded then the ethical dilemma of deception and contributing to an epidemic would exist. The information provided about the study doesnt clearly identify that N-C is not decreasing water available to people in need. Based on the results from the thorough investigation identifying that Ã¢â¬Å"Noca-Cola uses a very small supply of water in the formula for the soft drinks Ã¢â¬â and that it is a statistically insignificant amount relativeRead MoreSolving Ethical Dilemmas Essay1501 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages An ethical dilemma is defined as a complex situation that will often involve an apparent mental conflict between moral imperatives in which to obey one would result in transgressing another . When individuals are faced with an ethical question, we tend to search for a Ã¢â¬Å"correct answerÃ¢â¬ when responding. However, these types of questions do not always seem to have a straightforward answer. The arguments which may ar ise from an ethical dilemma question are typically examined in two ways: whether peopleRead MoreEthical dilemmas Essay1412 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEthical Dilemmas in Business Case 2: Kathryn McNeil (A) Charles FoleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ethical Dilemma At stake here are several conflicting values, the concern for a fellow human being, self-preservation, success of the company and the pressure to perform. As VP of the division, I am under scrutiny to deliver substantial results to my president, John Edmonds, to be seen as sensitive to my product managers needs. Lisa Walters, KathrynÃ¢â¬â¢s supervisor, has pressed me for a resource action for boosting staff moraleRead MoreEthical Dilemma Essay2127 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesEthical dilemma 2 Abstract Ethical dilemmas are prevalent in all areas of life. In each helping profession, ethical guidelines and codes require that professionals act morally and in the best interest of the client. As a prospective counseling psychologist, I would need keen judgment to recognize and professional skills to handle an ethical dilemma. This paper details my personal experience of an ethical dilemma while working as a case manger. My objective is to identify the setting of
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
In Frederick Douglasss Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, he appeals to the interest of the reader through his first hand accounts of slavery, his use of irony in these descriptions, and his balance between indirectness and honesty. Douglasss descriptions of the harshness of slave life are filled with horrific details able to reach even the coldest hearts. The beginning of the book describes how Douglass lacks even the simplest knowledge of his own age. He goes on in the book to describe how he has no accurate knowledge of his age, because he has never seen any of the authentic records containing it. By far the larger part of the slaves, know as little of their ages as horses know of theirs, and it is probably theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦He mentions the tangible blood and shrieks to emphasize the pain and torture of a human being. This slave bleeds like any other person and so it is easier for us to become concerned while reading the quote. Douglasss brutal description of slave life reaches a climax when he comes under the care of the slave-breaker Mr. Covey. One day when Douglass has reached beyond the point of true exhaustion and collapses sick, Mr. Covey discovers him. After kicking Douglass several times, Covey got a Hickory slot and gave Douglass a huge hit to the head, giving him a large wound where the blood ran freely. This description appears just a few pages before the actual climax of the book, where Douglass stands up to Mr. Covey. Douglass also shows that people who claimed to be moral Christians were torturers of humans. He succeeds in painting a picture of the typical slave owner and his hypocritical beliefs toward God and people. He associates a selfish greed hidden behind devoutness of the everyday Christian. In addition to this Douglass also makes sarcastic descriptions of people and places, describing how un-Christian they were by calling them Christian. Douglass also presents himself as a man not looking for pity. For the most part, Douglass presents the basic facts. There are many instances in which the description becomesShow MoreRelatedSocial Classes Effecting Cruelty DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Narrative of the Life of Frederick DouglassÃ¢â¬ 2327 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesSOCIAL CLASSES EFFECTING CRUELTY DOUGLASSÃ¢â¬â¢S NARRATIVE OF THE LIFE OF FREDERICK DOUGLASS A. Introduction To know about social classes in a prose (Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass), it is a duty knowing about what sociological criticism is firstly. Sociological Criticism is one of the family literary criticisms that directed to analyze literary work in a larger social context. It codifies the literary strategies that are employed to reflect social constructs through a sociological methodologyRead MoreA Comparison Piece of Mark Twains the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and Frederick Douglasss Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave834 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMark Twains The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and Frederick Douglasss Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave can be said to be comparison pieces. Despite that Huck Finn is a fictional character and Douglass was a physical being, certain characteristics and developmental processes are very similar. Firstly, in the initial stages of their lives, both Huck and Douglass faced repression, though in different forms. While Huck is a character whose spirit longs to fly freelyRead MoreFrederick Douglass, An American Slave1114 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Frederick Douglass is well known for many of his literary achievements. He is best known, now, as a writer. As a writer, Frederick Douglass shined. As a speaker, he was the best. There was no abolitionist, black or white, that was more for his speaking skills. (McFeely, 206) So impressive were Frederick DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢s oratorical and intellectual abilities that opponents refused to believe that he had been a slave and alleged that he was a impostor brought up on the public byRead MoreEssay Frederick Douglass and Slavery1448 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFrederick Douglass and Slavery Frederick Douglass the most successful abolitionist who changed AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s views of slavery through his writings and actions. Frederick Douglass had many achievements throughout his life. His Life as a slave had a great impact on his writings. His great oratory skills left the largest impact on Civil War time period literature. All in all he was the best black speaker and writer ever. Douglass was born a slave in 1817, in Maryland. He educatedRead MoreFrederick Douglass And Slavery.1438 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFrederick Douglass and Slavery Frederick Douglass the most successful abolitionist who changed AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s views of slavery through his writings and actions. Frederick Douglass had many achievements throughout his life. His Life as a slave had a great impact on his writings. His great oratory skills left the largest impact on Civil War time period literature. All in all he was the best black speaker and writer ever. Douglass was born a slave in 1817, in Maryland. He educatedRead MoreNarrative Of Life Of Frederick Douglass1271 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesof many famous quotes by Frederick Douglass that illustrates that no dream or hope can be achieved without any action. In his autobiography Narrative of Life of Frederick Douglass, he outlines his life as a slave and his journey towards freedom through his desire for education. In Narrative of Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, the story expresses repression that slaves experienced through DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢s related experiences as a slave. The obstacles that Douglass conquers to achieve his educationRead MoreFreedom And Liberty By Frederick Douglass948 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesinto society. Frederick Douglass, an American slave during the 1800s, is one of the first slaves to seek his freedom during this time and goes on to explain how within his novel The Narrative of Frederick Douglass. The idea of freedom, in DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes, changes drastically throughout his story as a slave. He first makes the connection of inequality as a young boy which sets into action a course of events for Douglass to discover what freedom truly is. Throughout DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢s slave life, freedom isRead MoreAnnotated Bibliography Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass Essay858 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAnnotated Bibliography Boxill, Bernard. Frederick DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢s Patriotism. Journal of Ethics 13.4 (2009): 301-317. EBSCO. Web. 19 Oct 2015. Bernard argues that Frederick Douglass always was a patriot even throughout slavery. He states that most Americans are patriots even if they do not agree with the politics, but rather just a love for their country. It talks about Americans who give selfless amounts of time toward the improvement of America. Buccola, Nicholas. Each for All and All for Each:Read MoreHello World Essay505 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesFrederick Douglass was born in Talbot County, Maryland. The date of his birth is estimated to be around the year 1818. His mother was a slave named Harriet Bailey. His father was generally acknowledged to be a white man, quite possibly his master, Captain Anthony. As a young boy, Douglass lived the typical life of a slave on a Southern plantation. He suffered through constant hunger and cold. He was also exposed to the extreme barbarity of slavery. In 1826, at the age of seven or eight, DouglassRead MoreThe Life Of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave1170 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesinfluential abolitionist speakers, Frederick Douglass. Born into slavery, this great American leader led a life many of us would find impossible to bear. After gaining his freedom from slavery, Douglass shared his stories through impressive speeches and vivid autobiographies, which helped America move forward as a country liberated from racial inequality. Although Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave allows readers to understand what life was like for slaves in antebellum
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about theDementia in Australiafor Perception and Memory. Answer: Introduction Dementia refers to a syndrome that is characterized by the impairment of the functions of the brain including cognitive skills, personality, language, perception, and memory (World Health Organization, 2012). Dementia should not be understood as a natural part of aging although this condition became more prevalent and shared with advancement with age (Alzheimer's Association, 2013). Therefore, mostly dementia affects older individuals. The most prominent consequence of the aging population among the Australian people is the increase in the number of persons with dementia (Prince, Bryce, Albanese, Wimo, Ribeiro Ferri, 2013). In Australia, Dementia is a major health problem that has profound health consequences and reduces the quality of living for individuals with the condition as well as their friends and family. Dementia is prevalent among persons aged 65 years and above. Sixty-five percent of those diagnosed with dementia are older women who live in the community (Alzheimer's Asso ciation, 2013). The Indigenous persons have higher rates of dementia than the other Australians. In the Aboriginal communities of Australia, dementia prevalence is almost five to six times that of the general public. Dementia has remained a health priority in Australia since the year 2012. The old people diagnosed with dementia are widespread in the community, hospitals and residential care. Dementia poses a serious challenge to health, social policy as well as the aged (Brodaty Cumming, 2010). In Australia, dementia is the fourth leading cause of death and the third cause of the burden of disability. Persons with dementia rely deeply on the health and aged care services. This is because this individual, mostly women from the Aboriginal communities have other health problems hence the need for high health care. Various factors have led to the increased cases of dementia among the Australian population. These factors include poverty and lack of early medical intervention (Ambrose, P aul Hausdorff, 2013). How Poverty Impacts on Dementia The early exposure in life to the various unfavorable conditions that are related to poverty reduces the longevity for persons in the various developing countries. The conditions that are associated with poverty include infectious diseases, prenatal stress, and malnutrition (Wimo, Jnsson, Bond, Prince, Winblad International, 2013). These poverty-related conditions and the increasing age are the risk factors for dementia worldwide. The Alzheimers society approximates that close to seventy-one percent of dementia patients in the year 2050 will be from the weak middle-income states. In these low-income countries, the ratio of the dependents to non-dependents will rise than the rich countries. Poverty and low income among poor people leads to the lack of early diagnosis and treatment of dementia. The lack of access to medical care due to poverty makes the condition deteriorate faster. Poverty in the developing countries has also led to the lack of resources required for the research tha t is needed for management and reduction of dementia (Nay, Bauer, Fetherstonhaugh, Moyle, Tarzia McAuliffe, 2015). The World Health Organization states that dementia do not only affect the individual, but it also impacts and changes even the lives of other family members. Dementia is a very costly condition regarding health, social and economic dimensions. The need for the long-term care for persons with dementia strains the social and health systems as well as budgets. The cost of care for the individuals with dementia drives many families below the poverty line (Alzheimer's Association, 2013). The Australian government among other government have committed funding and programs to help the poor persons who have dementia. Poverty restricts the dietary requirements that are needed by individuals with dementia (Arkles, Jackson Pulver, Robertson, Draper, Chalkley Broe, 2010). The nutritional risk increases in poor, older adults who are unable to meet the dietary requirements that are necessary to improve the working of the brain as well as reduce the risk of dementia. The low risk of dementia in th e developed countries is due to the adherence of the dietary requirements of the brain that is only affordable to the rich. Various diets rich in fiber, fruits, and vegetables increase the well-being of humans and reduces the development of the pathological processes which are characteristic of neurodegenerative disorders. Poverty among various governments has made it hard for the government to educate and sensitize the citizens on the different ways of prevention and management of dementia (Hutchinson, Roberts, Daly, Bulsara Kurrle, 2016). The Social Determinants of Dementia The story of Wilson is an inspiration to many (YouTube-Living with dementia, (Sep 25, 2013). Wilson was diagnosed with dementia by the Alzheimers Society and died at age of sixty six after living with dementia for ten years. The family members believes that Wilsons diagnosis has not changed him much and they are happy with the course of treatment (YouTube-Living with dementia, (Sep 25, 2013). There are various therapeutics that are designed for the enhancement of cognition and memory in the Alzheimer Patients as seen in Wilsons case. The therapeutic agents have limited efficacy, but their introduction has shone a new light on the field. From the video of Wilson, we see that the medication has enabled him to live almost a normal life as they improve the quality of life hence his social life has not changed much. Therefore, it is crucial to have a look at the past or understand the present and gain insight into the future through understanding of societal and cultural values (Willis E lmer, 2011). In the past few years, there have been substantial developments in the understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of the Alzheimers disease and the other related disorders (Willis Elmer, 2011). The prevalence of dementia is about three percent. The social determinants of dementia are factors that include male sex, rising age, better socioeconomic status and presence of preceding involvement in the family decision making as seen in Wilsons case since the family members are fully involved in his life and dementia management (Smith, Flicker, Dwyer, Atkinson, Almeida, Lautenschlager LoGiudice, 2010). The family history, genetics, and heredity play a crucial role in determining a persons possibility of developing various types of dementia therefore, Wilsons family is at a high risk of developing dementia hence early detection and treatment of all the family members with signs and symptoms of dementia. There are some types of dementia that cannot be attributed to the environment or the lifestyle factors. Therefore, the risk reduction is not a guarantee of a persons prevention but the patient and family should strive to reduce these risks through involvement in the social policies (Bradshaw, 2015). This experience therefore will fit the principles of a safe culture as well as those of person centered care. However, the risk reduction has a crucial role at the population level, and this level represents the effective method to decrease the occurrence and the societal impact of dementia. These social risk factors include diabetes prevalence, physical inactivity depression, midlife hypertension, smoking, cognitive inactivity and midlife obesity (Barnes Yaffe, 2011). In the political aspect, the Australian government has invested adequately in the management and prevention of dementia through the formulation of favorable policies and funding. Australia has been named the world leader in fighting dementia through risk reduction (Radley Bell, 2011). From the story of Wilson, it is evident that the government has subsidized the medication for dementia and that there are policies to cater for old people with dementia (YouTube-Living with dementia, (Sep 25, 2013). The Australian government initiated and is funding the Your Brain Matters program which is the number one publicly funded program aimed at preventing dementia. This program is delivered via the Australias Alzheimers Federation. The Your Brain Matters directs individuals on the ways of looking after the health of their brain based on the lifestyle factors as well as modifiable health factors that are associated with the risk of dementia development (Smith et al. 2010). The Australian governm ent has also introduced other forms of passing information to the general public about dementia, for instance use of artwork. Illnesses are at the intersection of medicine, art and social action. The artwork tells us about the illness experience and are used to claim for social justice (Radley Bell, 2011). Health Services and Australian Healthcare System The National Health Care Reform has developed various health promotion principles that shape the health and the aged care system offering long term and continuing care. The commission argues that the treatment of dementia should be people and family centered (Louviere Flynn, 2010). The health system is supposed to be responsive to the persons cultural diversity as well as the various preferences. The equality principle ensures that the health care services in Australia are accessible to all the citizens based on the individual health needs and not the ability to pay for the services according to the fundamentals of nursing (Crisp, Douglas, Rebeiro, Waters, 2017). The principle of shared responsibility helps in the health promotion as all the Australians are held responsible for the health and the success of the various health systems. The consumers and the family should decide on the health system while the driver should communicate clearly and enable the customer to understand the choices that are available (Louviere Flynn, 2010). The management of dementia should strengthen the prevention and wellness as all Australians try to understand dementia and work towards health improvement. The services provided by various health facilities should be worth the amount of money invested for that purpose (Adams, 2001). The government takes the long term view through strategic planning and ensures that the acute does not crowd out the attention and the planning meant for long term management of dementia. Health promotion encourages transparency and accountability through transparency into the government funding. The models predominating in the Australian health care system for dementia include the two models which include; Person-Centered Care and the Palliative Care (Downs Bowers, 2014). The palliative care in dementia ensures that life is affirmed, treatment of distressing symptoms in treatment and maintaining of the quality of life and the primary care should be biological, social, spiritual and psychological. Person -Centered care calls for dementia management by following individual needs (Crisp Taylor, 2008). The provision of the various health services should revolve around the health requirements and needs of the patient. Cultural Safety and the Person-Centered Care The cultural safety refers to the various experiences of the individual who is receiving the medical care. Cultural safety is similar to the clinical safety which allows the patient to feel secure in the medical care interactions (Carel, 2008). The Nursing and the Midwifery Board of Australia (NMBA) contains the standards of practice that are set by the health practitioner Regulatory National Law (Scanlon, Cashin, Watson Bryce, 2012). The NMBA controls the practice of the nurses and the midwifery in Australia whose role is to protect the public. The NMBA develops the registration standards, the professional codes which include; patient privacy, autonomy, informed consent, equality, confidentiality and fairness (Sheedy Whitter, 2013). There are also various guidelines and the standards for the practice that establish the different requirements for the nursing and the safe practices of the nurses and also the midwives in the Australian population. The standards set helps in better ma nagement of the patient and maintaining patient confidentiality (Bernoth, Dietsch, Burmeister Schwartz, 2014). However, these standards are very high for some nurses and midwives in Australia to maintain. The inability of these health practitioners to meet the high standards that are set reduces their full involvement in the management of the patients. The code of ethics contained in the NBA 2008, state the ethical framework which each employee must follow. The code of conduct include: ethical standards, provisions for the compliance with the applicable law, fairness, equality, employment practices and contract termination in case of failure to comply with these code of conducts (Sheedy Whitter, 2013). These codes of conduct sometimes are too demanding hence they underpin the nursing care as the nurses proceeds with care to avoid carelessness. Nurses and midwives have been taken to court or even dismissed from work due to failure to comply with these set code of conduct even though they may have acted in the best interests of the patient (Sheedy Whitter, 2013). These restrictions leads to slower and poor service delivery as the nurses and the midwives are limited on the actions they can take. Although these code of conducts are meant to safeguard the wellbeing of the patient, sometimes they act as barriers to service delivery hen ce leading to reduced outcomes. Some of these code of conduct include; the provision that the suppliers will conduct their business according to the highest ethical behavior which occasionally limits the decision making capabilities of the nurses and midwives. Most of the cultural values and principles in the Australian health system becomes barriers to the social safety and the Consumer-centered medical care in the nursing practices (Crisp Taylor, 2008). Conclusion There is the need to formulate flexible codes of ethics and practice standards that offer the nurse a wide range of options before choosing a particular option. This will enable the nurses to take appropriate actions that are required for the betterment of the patients with dementia. Management of dementia depends on the whole society as each individual has a role to play in taking care of the elderly population to reduce dementia or reduce the risks that are associated with dementia (Walker, 2003). The government should be more involved in the eradication of dementia through the building of aged homes where the elderly can be treated and managed. The government needs to offer mass education on the management of dementia, the control, and prevention. The management of the patient should be evidence-based so that all the needs of the patient are met (Walker, 2003). Medication and other therapeutic interventions that help in the management of patient with dementia should be available a s well as affordable to all citizens to ensure reduction and elimination of dementia. This can be achieved by the government lowering tax on medications used for treatment of dementia so that the poor elderly individuals can access these medication to improve the quality of life. References Adams, T. (2001). The conversational and discursive construction of community psychiatric nursing for chronically confused people and their families. Nursing Inquiry, 8(2), 98-107. Alzheimer's Association. (2013). 2013 Alzheimer's disease facts and figures. Alzheimer's dementia, 9(2), 208-245. Ambrose, A. F., Paul, G., Hausdorff, J. M. (2013). Risk factors for falls among older adults: a review of the literature. Maturitas, 75(1), 51-61. Arkles, R., Jackson Pulver, L., Robertson, H., Draper, B., Chalkley, S., Broe, A. (2010). Ageing, cognition and dementia in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: a life cycle approach 34-56 Australian Nursing Midwifery Federation. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://anmf.org.au/pages/climate-change Barnes, D. E., Yaffe, K. (2011). The projected effect of risk factor reduction on Alzheimer's disease prevalence. The Lancet Neurology, 10(9), 819-828. Bernoth, M., Dietsch, E., Burmeister, O. K., Schwartz, M. (2014). Information management in aged care: cases of confidentiality and elder abuse. Journal of business ethics, 122(3), 453-460. Bradshaw, A. (2015). Shaping the future of nursing: developing an appraisal framework for public engagement with nursing policy reports. Nursing Inquiry, 22(1), 7483. doi:10.1111/nin.12072 Brodaty, H., Cumming, A. (2010). Dementia services in Australia. International journal of geriatric psychiatry, 25(9), 887-995. Carel, H. (2008). Illness (the Art of Living). Durham: Acumen Publishing. Consumer expectations and health care in Australia. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://ahha.asn.au/system/files/docs/publications/deeble_issues_brief_nlcg-3_consumer_expectations_and_healthcare_in_australia.pdf Crisp, J., Taylor, C. (2008). Potter and Perry's fundamentals of nursing. Elsevier Australia. Crisp, J., Douglas, C., Rebeiro, G., Waters, D. (Eds.). (2017a). Potter Perrys fundamentals of nursing (5e?; Australia and New Zealand edition). Chatswood, NSW: Elsevier Australia (a division of Reed International Books Australia Pty Ltd.). Downs, M., Bowers, B. (2014). Excellence in dementia care: Research into practice. McGraw-Hill Education (UK) 111-132 Hughes, J. C. (2011). Thinking through dementia. Oxford University Press. Hutchinson, K., Roberts, C., Daly, M., Bulsara, C., Kurrle, S. (2016). Empowerment of young people who have a parent living with dementia: a social model perspective. International Psychogeriatrics, 28(04), 657-668. Living with dementia, (Sep 25, 2013). Living with dementia-the Wilsons' story - Alzheimer's Society [Video file]. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4YZDJlcyq-4/ Louviere, J. J., Flynn, T. N. (2010). Using best-worst scaling choice experiments to measure public perceptions and preferences for healthcare reform in Australia. The Patient: Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, 3(4), 275-283. Nay, R., Bauer, M., Fetherstonhaugh, D., Moyle, W., Tarzia, L., McAuliffe, L. (2015). Social participation and family carers of people living with dementia in Australia. Health social care in the community, 23(5), 550-558. Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia - Professional standards. (n.d.-a). Retrieved from https://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/Codes-Guidelines-Statements/Professional-standards.aspx Prince, M., Bryce, R., Albanese, E., Wimo, A., Ribeiro, W., Ferri, C. P. (2013). The global prevalence of dementia: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Alzheimer's Dementia, 9(1), 63-75. Radley, A., Bell, S. E. (2011). Another way of knowing: Art, disease and illness experience. Scanlon, A., Cashin, A., Watson, N., Bryce, J. (2012). Advanced nursing practice hours as part of endorsement requirements for nurse practitioners in Australia: A definitional conundrum. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 24(11), 649-659. Sheedy, C. K., Whitter, M. (2013). Guiding principles and elements of recovery-oriented systems of care: What do we know from the research?. Journal of Drug Addiction, Education, and Eradication, 9(4), 225. Smith, B. J., Ali, S., Quach, H. (2014). Public knowledge and beliefs about dementia risk reduction: a national survey of Australians. BMC Public Health, 14(1), 661. Smith, K., Flicker, L., Dwyer, A., Atkinson, D., Almeida, O. P., Lautenschlager, N. T., LoGiudice, D. (2010). Factors associated with dementia in Aboriginal Australians. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 44(10), 888-893. Walker, K. (2003). Why evidence-based practice now?: a polemic. Nursing Inquiry, 10(3), 145155. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1800.2003.00179.x Willis, K., Elmer, S. (2011). Society, culture and health: an introduction to sociology for nurses (2nd ed). South Melbourne, Vic: Oxford University Press. Wimo, A., Jnsson, L., Bond, J., Prince, M., Winblad, B., International, A. D. (2013). The worldwide economic impact of dementia 2010. Alzheimer's Dementia, 9(1), 1-11. World Health Organization. (2012). Dementia: a public health priority. World Health Organization.
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
Truth At First Light essays Just in time to mark the 100th anniversary of the birth of Ernest Hemingway, comes his latest book, True At First Light. His son, Patrick, has edited an unpublished manuscript the author wrote about his trip to Africa in 1953-54. Patrick shouldn't have bothered. The book is an aimless, boring ramble where nothing much happens. Hemingway has been left in charge of the bush camp and he dwells on the responsibility. He writes about hunting, his men, the threat of an attack by local men and the determination of his wife Mary to kill a lion. Her obsession with the lion is just one subject causing some domestic discord; the other is his relationship with a local woman named Debba. Much of the dialogue revolves around their daily bickering. Hemingway's use of the endearment "Honey" drips with barely concealed impatience and condescension and becomes wholly annoying. True At First Light is a fictional memoir, which blends real events or people with the technique of fiction. In his introduction, Patrick writes that "ambiguous counterpoint between fiction and truth lies at the heart of this memoir." That would mean something if the story had any feeling. The real fault of this book is there's no connection to Hemingway's usual ideas and passions; it remains limp. Aside from the occasional nice description of wildlife or landscape, the only passage of note is one where we can appreciate Hemingway's reverence for Africa. "Men know that they are children in relation to the country...To have the heart of a child is not a disgrace. It is an honour. A man must comport himself as a man. He must fight ... He should follow his tribal laws and customs ... But it is never a reproach that he has kept a child's heart, a child's honesty and a child's freshness and nobility." Sadly, there's very little else of value here. If you really want to celebrate the 100th anniversary of Papa's birth, reread one of his masterpieces. It'll be time bett ...
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Assignment Two - Essay Example After spending much time reading religious books, Ignatius traveled to monasteries and schools praying and studying in preparation of consecrated life to Christ. After his graduate studies at the University of Paris together with his six friends, they vowed to continue with their extended prayer and meditation. The Jesuit society was founded in the year 1534 on a day known as the Assumption day. At the time of the formation of this society, Ignatius was 40 years. After the communion, Ignatius and his companions vowed to go on a mission to a Holy Land. The aim was to convert non members of the group .The constitution of the society was constituted and approved by Paul the 3rd in Rome in the year 1540.The Jesuits vow to serve the Pope and to provide the Pope with unconditional obedience, teaching, confession and to offer voluntary work and services1. France is known as the cradle land of the Jesuits but the society in Italy received its Programme and constitution. The society therefore took its roots first in Italy and then spread abroad. The history of Italian civilization dating to 16th and 17th centuries shows the results to increased number of colleges and Jesuit academies. In Spain, the orderÃ¢â¬â¢s penetration was slower. The higher clergy and the Dominicans were opposing the action of this group and therefore that contributed to its slow growth. However, the order came to defeat the resistance and eventually found its way in2. The aim of the Jesuits is to form not an intellectual Christian elite but to elite the Christians. Thus, it would be so disturbing for these believers to learn about CandideÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy since to him, God never existed. He was against the fact that God is perfect and he went ahead and proclaimed that if God was perfect as the Jesuits insisted the world should also be perfect. The fact that the world is not perfect formed the basis for Candide to believe that God never existed. The Jesuit society also had a conquering spirit and an ultimate desire to attract nonmembers and to hold them with their influence. CandideÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy was against hypocrisy and immorality among religious leaders, he expresses his view against Christianity by pointing out how religious leaders persecuted those who were against their theology and corruption. For example, in this book we encounter a popeÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter; a man of God who was supposed to be selibate and not sire any children but, on the other hand, he secretly keeps an affair with a mistress. In the Candide, the author uses various kinds of satire against optimism which the Jesuit society valued most. Voltaire, the author of the Candide, is satirical about those Christian believers who were caught in wrong doings. VoltaireÃ¢â¬â¢s main aim of writing this book was to destroy optimism. This can be very disturbing to the Jesuit society since they preached optimism and good morals. In this case, believers needed to have hope of eternal life and positive feel ing about the future when all was not well. For instance, he used satirical remarks after hearing the old womanÃ¢â¬â¢s story. He says it was such a pity for a person as wise as Pangloss who was hanged, they could have spared him instead so